Job analysis is the process of accumulating information concerning an employee’s present job or an open position to use this information as a basis for determining requirements, setting standards, evaluating incumbent performance, and establishing pay rates.
“The job analysis is one of the most important steps in the successful employment of any employee. The job analysis provides us with an opportunity to find out what a candidate can and wants to do as an employee and what they like to do. We can use the information we gather about the individual’s abilities and interests to design a work environment that will help them succeed on the job.
A job analysis provides better recruitment, selection, placement, and training of employees; it also gives us a way to appraise performance and improve jobs themselves. Job analyses also provide clues about building effective manpower planning in our organizations by identifying job elements that need attention.
A practical job analysis describes each significant element of a specific job and assesses the requirements associated with each component. Included in this description should be data concerning the knowledge, skills, abilities, physical demands (including any special facilities required), working conditions, and other factors that are integral parts of doing that specific work.
A well-done job analysis should provide enough data for a manager to decide who should be hired for an open position, who is currently doing the work satisfactorily, and who might be interested in doing it.”
The steps to conducting a job analysis are:
Gather information about a position
Evaluate the importance of each task and competency
Research industry standards
Revise job descriptions and standards
Use data to make changes
Job analysis is the process of turnout information related to a particular job, including knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to work effectively in that job. It helps prepare job descriptions and job descriptions.
Job descriptions are written statements that indicate what the job covers: the functions, responsibilities, duties, powers, and authority of the position. Employers use them to help determine if candidates meet minimum qualifications for the job and can be used by applicants to identify if they are qualified for a particular position.
The elements of job analysis are essential for the human resource department to know the advantages and disadvantages of a position. The compensation system is usually based on hierarchy, which means that the compensation level increases with the job position.
The job description describes what the employee should do in performing their duties in the organization. It is always written with the employee’s performance and productivity as the primary goal. It is also used for recruitment purposes since it will show this to potential employees who will be asked to submit their resumes or applications for this particular position.
Another element of job analysis is job worth or value. It refers to how much advantage an employee can give to a company through their performance and productivity within a certain period.
Methods used to conduct a job analysis are interviewing, observation, surveys, and work logs.
Interviewing: Asking an employee to give details about their jobs is one way to produce an accurate job description. Employers will ask questions about specific jobs and request a breakdown of the duties performed by those in a particular position.
Observation: An employer may also choose to watch employees complete their jobs, noting their tasks and the skills needed for those tasks. Statements work well for processes related to physical tasks and product-related outcomes.
Surveys: Surveys are tools used to determine how often a particular task is completed or how much a skill set is used. These surveys can be highly structured forms where employees use a scale to answer questions about the job. It can also use surveys more informally for employees to answer open-ended questions.
Worklogs: An employer may also request a written account of daily work for a certain period.
A job analysis must be conducted as the primary step in any new recruitment effort. It helps you to clarify your needs and expectations for the position. It also allows you to collect information needed when writing a job description.
There are many potential disadvantages to job analysis. Excessive focus on specific aspects of a job may distort the evaluation of an employee. Job analysis is time-consuming, so the process may become useless if jobs frequently change. It may introduce personal bias if the supervisor or analyst is an employee of the same organization.
Job analysis is an effective tool for optimizing productivity and determining employees’ effectiveness in a variety of jobs. However, job analysis has some inherent limitations that should be considered when implementing the process.
Some of the disadvantages of job analysis are as follows:-
Too much human effort
Lack of Skills
Lack of mental abilities
The manager’s Human Resources department or a trained Job Analyst/Consultant. A job analysis is as vital as any other business tool and should not be taken lightly. It requires an in-depth study of the work performed, from the point of both the manager and the employee, which will provide:
Valuable information regarding the job duties and requirements.
Necessary knowledge skills and abilities.
Other information that will assist in making appropriate personnel decisions.
It is recommended that the employer seek professional assistance in developing a job analysis.
Job analysis is an approach to job evaluation designed to describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to conduct a specific job. The power of this procedure is that it can help employers understand the specific requirements for a job more clearly.
Tasks are grouped into skill categories by an industrial psychologist or other professional. The charges are defined as precisely as possible, and the demands of each lesson are described. Attributes such as physical demands and environmental conditions are taken into account.
In contrast, job evaluation is the process of assigning a monetary value to jobs to determine pay grades and compensation for employees. This system is often used in conjunction with job analysis.