What is Annuity? | Meaning & Definition | Akrivia HCM

An annuity is a financial contract that provides a series of regular payments to an individual or entity over a specified period of time. A retirement plan typically provides a steady income stream in the future.

Insurance companies usually offer annuities, although other financial institutions can also provide them. They are designed to address the need for income stability and security, especially during retirement when individuals may no longer have a regular paycheck.

When an individual purchases an annuity, they make either a lump sum payment or a series of payments into the contract. In return, the annuity provider agrees to make regular payments to the holder, typically monthly, quarterly, or annual, depending on the contract terms.

Different types of Annuity

There are 4 many different types of annuities.

  • Immediate annuities: With an immediate annuity, you make a lump sum payment to an insurance company or financial institution, and they begin making regular payments to you immediately or within a short period of time, typically within one year.
  • Deferred annuities: In a deferred annuity, you contribute money over time, and the payments start later, usually at retirement. This allows the annuity to accumulate earnings on a tax-deferred basis until the payments begin.
  • Fixed annuities: In a fixed annuity, the insurance company or financial institution guarantees a fixed rate of return on your investment. The payments remain unchanged throughout the annuity term, providing a predictable income stream.
  • Variable annuities: A variable annuity allows you to invest your money in various investment options, such as mutual funds. The returns on these investments will vary based on market performance, and as a result, the payments from a variable annuity can fluctuate.

Annuity Pros & Cons:

Pros of Annuities

  • Guaranteed income: Annuities provide a guaranteed stream of income for life. They can pay out a fixed amount for a period of time or your entire life, regardless of market conditions. This can provide financial security and peace of mind, particularly during retirement.
  • Tax benefits: Annuities offer tax-deferred growth, meaning you only pay taxes on the earnings within the annuity once you withdraw funds. This feature allows your investment to compound over time without the drag of annual taxes, potentially leading to a greater accumulation of funds.
  • Variety of Options: Annuities come in various types, such as fixed, variable, and indexed annuities. This allows you to choose an annuity that matches your investment goals and risk tolerance. Fixed annuities offer a predictable income, variable annuities allow for investment growth potential, and indexed annuities combine elements of both.

Cons of Annuities

  • High fees & Expenses: Annuities often come with fees and expenses that can reduce your overall returns. Common charges include administrative fees, mortality and expense fees, investment management fees, and surrender charges if you withdraw funds before a specified period. 
  • Complexity: Annuities can be complex financial products, especially variable and indexed annuities. Understanding the terms, features, and potential risks associated with different annuity types may require some effort. It’s essential to read the contract carefully, ask questions, and seek professional advice to thoroughly comprehend the terms and conditions.
  • Liquidity: Annuities are designed as long-term investments and typically have liquidity restrictions. Withdrawing funds early can result in surrender charges and tax penalties. Therefore, annuities may not be suitable if you anticipate needing access to your money in the short term.


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